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VMACE COMPUTER EDUCATION

An ISO 9001:2008/2015 Certified Institution
A Govt. Regd.
An Autonomous Institution of Information Technology Education & Skill Development




Admission open for  DOAP Six months/1 Year,DOAAP with Hindi & English Typing duration 1 Year, DCTT ,DCA , GST Accounting,ADCHN,DCHN,DOAP 1 YEAR,PGDCA,Basic Computer,Tally ERP with GST,Diploma in Cyber security & Networking Tools ,Mulitimedia 6 months /1 year course,Diploma in Financial Accounting  duration 6 Monthsl Web designing so many courses in one hub

 

The & Layers of the OSI Model

          The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.

vmace Application
(Layer 7)
This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
 
Presentation
(Layer 6)
This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
 
Session
(Layer 5)
This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.
 
Transport
(Layer 4)
This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer.
 
Network
(Layer 3)
This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.
 
Data Link
(Layer 2)
At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.
 
Physical
(Layer 1)
This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.
 


 

 

OSI MODEL, LAYERS & PROTOCOLS

 7 Application   

Web Browser, Email, Print Serivces,  SIP, SSH and SCP, NFS, RTSP, Feed, XMPP, Whois, SMB; DNS; FTP; TFTP; BOOTP; SNMP;RLOGIN; SMTP; MIME; NFS; FINGER; TELNET; NCP; APPC; AFP; SMB

 

6 Presentation        

XDR, ASN.1, SMB, AFP, NCP, MIDI, HTML, GIF, TIFF, JPEG, ASCII,

EBCDIC

5 Session    

TLS, SSH, X.225, RPC, NetBIOS, ASP, Winsock, BSD

 4 Transport 

TCP, UDP, RTP, SCTP, SPX, ATP

Gateway, Advanced Cable Tester, Brouter  

3 Network    

IP, ICMP, IGMP, BGP, OSPF, RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, ARP, RARP, X.25, NETBEUI

Brouter, Router, Frame Relay Device, ATM Switch, Advanced Cable Tester, DDP

2 Data Link  

Ethernet, Token ring, StarLAN, HDLC, Frame relay, ISDN, ATM, 802.11 WiFi, FDDI, PPP, Bridge, Switch, ISDN Router, Intelligent Hub, NIC, Advanced Cable Tester, ARCNET, LocalTalk, FDDI, ATM. NIC Drivers: Open Datalink Interface (ODI), Network Independent Interface Specification (NDIS)

1 Physical    

NIC, Twisted Pair, Coax, Fiber Optic, Wireless Media, Repeater, Multiplexer, Hubs, (Passive/Active), TDR, Oscilloscope, Amplifier, Carrier pigeon

 TCP LAYERS

4 Application (OSI - Layers5 through 7)          

HTTP, FTP, DNS

(Routing protocols like BGP and RIP, which for a variety of reasons run over TCP and UDP respectively, may also be considered part of the Internetwork layer)

 3 Transport (OSI - Layers4 and 5)         

TCP, UDP, RTP, SCTP

(Routing protocols like OSPF, which run over IP, may also be considered part of the Internetwork layer) 

2 Internetwork  (OSI - Layer 3)               

For TCP/IP this is the Internet Protocol (IP)

(Required protocols like ICMP and IGMP run over IP, but may still be considered part of the Internetwork layer; ARP does not run over IP)

 1 Link             (OSI - Layers 1 and 2)       

Ethernet, Wi-Fi, MPLS, etc.

         

        

  • Employability skills are the characteristics that are as important as academic grades required to compete  & get in, perform and proper in the world of work.

 

 

 

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INSPIRE the next generation.